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Condition

Title of Article

Year

2018

Instrumental Conditioning of Human Sensorimotor Rhythm (12-15 Hz) and Its Impact on Sleep as Well as Declarative Learning

Sleep

Abstract

Study Objectives: To test whether instrumental conditioning of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR; 12-15 Hz) has an impact on sleep parameters as well as declarative memory performance in humans. Design: Randomized, parallel group design Setting: 10 instrumental conditioning sessions, pre- and posttreatment investigation including sleep evaluations Participants: 27 healthy subjects (13 male) Interventions: SMR-conditioning (experimental group) or randomizedfrequency conditioning (control group); declarative memory task before and after a 90-min nap Measurement and Results: The experimental group was trained to enhance the amplitude of their SMR-frequency range, whereas the control group participated in a randomized-frequency conditioning program (i.e., every session a different 3-Hz frequency bin between 7 and 20 Hz). During pre- and posttreatment the subjects had to attend the sleep laboratory to take a 90-min nap (2:00-3:30 pm) and to perform a declarative memory task before and after sleep. The experimental design was successful in conditioning an increase in relative 12-15 Hz amplitude within 10 sessions (d = 0.7). Increased SMR activity was also expressed during subsequent sleep by eliciting positive changes in different sleep parameters (sleep spindle number [d = 0.6], sleep onset latency [d = 0.7]); additionally, this increased 12-15 Hz amplitude was associated with enhancement in retrieval score computed at immediate cued recall (d = 0.9).

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2017

Brain plasticity following MI-BCI training combined with tDCS in a randomized trial in chronic subcortical stroke subjects: a preliminary study

Traumatic Brain Injury / Stroke

Abstract

Brain-computer interface-assisted motor imagery (MI-BCI) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used in stroke rehabilitation, though their combinatory effect is unknown. We investigated brain plasticity following a combined MI-BCI and tDCS intervention in chronic subcortical stroke patients with unilateral upper limb disability. Nineteen patients were randomized into tDCS and sham-tDCS groups. Diffusion and perfusion MRI, and transcranial magnetic stimulation were used to study structural connectivity, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and corticospinal excitability, respectively, before and 4 weeks after the 2-week intervention. After quality control, thirteen subjects were included in the CBF analysis. Eleven healthy controls underwent 2 sessions of MRI for reproducibility study. Whereas motor performance showed comparable improvement, long-lasting neuroplasticity can only be detected in the tDCS group, where white matter integrity in the ipsilesional corticospinal tract and bilateral corpus callosum was increased but sensorimotor CBF was decreased, particularly in the ipsilesional side. CBF change in the bilateral parietal cortices also correlated with motor function improvement, consistent with the increased white matter integrity in the corpus callosum connecting these regions, suggesting an involvement of interhemispheric interaction. The preliminary results indicate that tDCS may facilitate neuroplasticity and suggest the potential for refining rehabilitation strategies for stroke patients.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2015

Neurofeedback for Traumatic Brain Injury: Current Trends

Traumatic Brain Injury

Abstract

Traumatic brain injuries constitute significant health and societal problems which can be ameliorated with some recent developments in neurofeedback. The field of neurofeedback has evolved from single channel to multiple-site training, and with LORETA Z-score training, deeper levels of the brain can reached. Neurofeedback for traumatic brain injury patients may provide improvements never before possible.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2015

EEG Biofeedback/Neurofeedback Training Accorded Highest Standard of Efficacy for ADD/ADHD Treatment

ADD / ADHD

Abstract

EEG Biofeedback, or Neurofeedback (NFB) training has sufficient research behind it that it is now considered by various institutional bodies and scientific publications to be as effective as any other treatment and superior to most for ADD/ADHD. This support is listed below:

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2015

Specific effects of EEG based neurofeedback training on memory functions in post-stroke victims

Traumatic Brain Injury / Stroke

Abstract

Using EEG based neurofeedback (NF), the activity of the brain is modulated directly and, therefore, the cortical substrates of cognitive functions themselves. In the present study, we investigated the ability of stroke patients to control their own brain activity via NF and evaluated specific effects of different NF protocols on cognition, in particular recovery of memory.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2012

Neurofeedback in ADHD and insomnia: Vigilance stabilization through sleep spindles and circadian networks

ADD / ADHD / Sleep

Abstract

In this review article an overview of the history and current status of neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD and insomnia is provided. Recent insights suggest a central role of circadian phase delay, resulting in sleep onset insomnia (SOI) in a sub-group of ADHD patients. Chronobiological treatments, such as melatonin and early morning bright light, affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This nucleus has been shown to project to the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) thereby explaining the vigilance stabilizing effects of such treatments in ADHD. It is hypothesized that both Sensori-Motor Rhythm (SMR) and Slow- Cortical Potential (SCP) neurofeedback impact on the sleep spindle circuitry resulting in increased sleep spindle density, normalization of SOI and thereby affect the noradrenergic LC, resulting in vigilance stabilization. After SOI is normalized, improvements on ADHD symptoms will occur with a delayed onset of effect. Therefore, clinical trials investigating new treatments in ADHD should include assessments at follow-up as their primary endpoint rather than assessments at outtake. Furthermore, an implication requiring further study is that neurofeedback could be stopped when SOI is normalized, which might result in fewer sessions.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2012

Research Institute Brainclinics: Doubling of Neurofeedback Efficacy in ADHD Treatment

ADD / ADHD

Abstract

A personalized treatment approach, tailoring Neurofeedback treatment to the individual ADHD patient, almost doubled the effectiveness for attentional and hyperactivity/impulsivity problems. These results have just been published in the scientific journal ‘Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback’. This study is the first scientific study investigating whether personalizing Neurofeedback treatment, based on a so-called quantitative EEG or QEEG, results in a higher effectiveness of this treatment in ADHD.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2012

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Left Prefrontal Cortex Improves Attention in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study

Traumatic Brain Injury

Abstract

Objective: To determine whether a single session of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improves attention in patients with traumatic brain injury. Design: Double-blinded, cross-over design. Patients: Nine patients with attention deficit after traumatic brain injury. Methods: Patients underwent a computerized contrast reaction time task before and after the administration of real transcranial direct current stimulation (2 mA for 20 min) or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (2 mA for 1 min) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a doubleblind, crossover manner.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2012

Neurotherapy of traumatic brain injury/posttraumatic stress symptoms in OEF/OIF veterans

Traumatic Brain Injury / Trauma

Abstract

Mild closed head injury (MHI) is a major problem in our society. Traditional methods of treatment such as cognitive rehabilitation or behavioral training are time consuming, expensive, and of questionable effectiveness. Anecdotal reports indicate that neuro-feedback can remediate the symptoms of MHI in a rapid and cost effective way. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) guided coherence training is effective in remediating residual symptoms of MHI.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2011

Neurofeedback for Insomnia: A Pilot Study of Z-Score SMR and Individualized Protocols

Sleep

Abstract

Insomnia is an epidemic in the US. Neurofeedback (NFB) is a little used, psychophysiological treatment with demonstrated usefulness for treating insomnia. Our objective was to assess whether two distinct Z-Score NFB protocols, a modified sensorimotor (SMR) protocol and a sequential, quantitative EEG (sQEEG)-guided, individually designed (IND) protocol, would alleviate sleep and associated daytime dysfunctions of participants with insomnia. Both protocols used instantaneous Z scores to determine reward condition administered when awake. Twelve adults with insomnia, free of other mental and uncontrolled physical illnesses, were randomly assigned to the SMR or IND group. Eight completed this randomized, parallel group, single-blind study. Both groups received fifteen 20-min sessions of Z-Score NFB. Pre-post assessments included sQEEG, mental health, quality of life, and insomnia status. ANOVA yielded significant post-treatment improvement for the combined group on all primary insomnia scores: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI p\.005), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI p\.0001), PSQI Sleep Efficiency (p\.007), and Quality of Life Inventory (p\.02). Binomial tests of baseline EEGs indicated a significant proportion of excessively high levels of Delta and Beta power (p\.001) which were lowered posttreatment (paired z-tests p\.001). Baseline EEGs showed excessive sleepiness and hyperarousal, which improved post-treatment. Both Z-Score NFB groups improved in sleep and daytime functioning. Post-treatment, all participants were normal sleepers. Because there were no significant differences in the findings between the two groups, our future large scale studies will utilize the less burdensome to administer Z-Score SMR protocol.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2009

An Overview Of Alpha-Theta Neurofeedback And Its Treatment Effectiveness For Substance Abuse

Addiction

Abstract

Neurofeedback, also known as EEG biofeedback, has been used successfully for the treatment of substance abuse for over 25 years. Built on the work of Kamiya and Green (Budzynski, 1999), Eugene Peniston published a series of papers using alpha-theta neurofeedback with a Veteran’s Administration (VA) population of Vietnam War veterans diagnosed with alcohol abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1989; Peniston & Kulkosky, 1990; Peniston, Marrinan, Deming, & Kulkosky, 1993). These important ‘Peniston papers’ no doubt facilitated a wave of EEG practitioners who rely on alpha-theta neurofeedback, or its modified forms, to treat substance abuse (as well as PTSD) that continues to this day. Keyword: Addiction

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2009

Integration of Neurofeedback in the Therapeutic Work With Torture and Trauma Survivors: A Case Study

Trauma

Abstract

This paper describes a case study of a 14-year-old African refugee boy who survived multiple traumas related to war, displacement, and deprivation. Traumatized from the age of 2, his presentation was primarily one of affect dysregulation. In order to address both the core hyperarousal and the unavailability of the necessary cortical and behavioral skills required to regulate affect, an approach was chosen that integrates neurofeedback (electroencephalographic biofeedback) and psychotherapy. We trust that the description of the process provides others with new practice options and an enthusiasm to expand in this direction.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2009

Anxiety Associated With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder—The Role of Quantitative Electroencephalograph in Diagnosis and in Guiding Neurofeedback Training to Remediate the Anxiety

Anxiety / Trauma

Abstract

The literature regarding neurofeedback treatment of anxiety associated with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is reviewed. The results of quantitative electroencephalograph (QEEG) guided neurofeedback training for anxiety in nineteen PTSD patients is analyzed, along with the change in anxiety in four control patients who did not do neurofeedback. Those who did neurofeedback training experienced clinically significant reductions in anxiety, whereas there was no significant change in anxiety in the control group. QEEG-guided neurofeedback appears to be effective in a higher percentage of patients than non– QEEG-guided training in increasing alpha and theta, based on results in the published literature.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2009

Integration of Neurofeedback in the Therapeutic Work With Torture and Trauma Survivors: A Case Study

Trauma

Abstract

This paper describes a case study of a 14-year-old African refugee boy who survived multiple traumas related to war, displacement, and deprivation. Traumatized from the age of 2, his presentation was primarily one of affect dysregulation. In order to address both the core hyperarousal and the unavailability of the necessary cortical and behavioral skills required to regulate affect, an approach was chosen that integrates neurofeedback (electroencephalographic biofeedback) and psychotherapy. We trust that the description of the process provides others with new practice options and an enthusiasm to expand in this direction.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2008

Current Appraisal of the Utility of Neurofeedback in Treating ADD/ADHD

ADD / ADHD

Abstract

The following is from Vincent Monastra’s book (2008), Unlocking the Potential of Patients with ADHD. He is a respected researcher in this field and has published an earlier review of the research literature which was cited on-line in the CHADD “What We Know” series. That review is outdated and the following update is a more current reflection on the scientific research into the utility of neurofeedback for attention issues.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2008

Instrumental Conditioning of Human Sensorimotor Rhythm (12-15 Hz) and Its Impact on Sleep as Well as Declarative Learning 

Sleep

Abstract

The experimental group was trained to enhance the amplitude of their SMR-frequency range, whereas the control group participated in a randomized-frequency conditioning program (i.e., every session a different 3-Hz frequency bin between 7 and 20 Hz). During pre- and posttreatment the subjects had to attend the sleep laboratory to take a 90-min nap (2:00–3:30 pm) and to perform a declarative memory task before and after sleep. The experimental design was successful in conditioning an increase in relative 12–15 Hz amplitude within 10 sessions (d = 0.7). Increased SMR activity was also expressed during subsequent sleep by eliciting positive changes in different sleep parameters (sleep spindle number [d = 0.6], sleep onset latency [d = 0.7]); additionally, this increased 12–15 Hz amplitude was associated with enhancement in retrieval score computed at immediate cued recall (d = 0.9).

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2008

Diagnosis and Treatment of Head Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury

Abstract

Brain injury appears to affect from 132 to 367 people per 100,000. Traditional methods for diagnosing mild head injury, such as medical history, CAT scan and MRI, often show normal test results even though patients complain of significant neurocognitive dysfunctions. Robert Thatcher compiled a normative reference EEG database in 1979. The norms were replicated in several studies. These EEG databases allow a patient's EEG to be compared with a reference population. An emerging and promising treatment approach to mild head injury is the use of Quantitative EEG technology and EEG neurofeedback training.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2008

Neurofeedback Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury

Abstract

Following acute TBI rehabilitation there have been a limited number of strategies that have been used in the treatment of cognitive disorders. These methods have included restorative cognitive rehabilitation procedures that utilize stimulation and practice (e.g., of vigilance with a computer intervention); strategy cognitive rehabilitation (e.g., utilizing visualization, creating associations), compensatory cognitive rehabilitation strategies; and medications (e.g., cognitive enhancing medications directed at arousal, attention and/or memory). All of these methodologies provide at best modest improvements, but it is still common for patients with TBI to be told that after a year and a half they have obtained about all of the improvement that they can expect, and that, therefore, they must simply adjust to the current state of affairs. There is, however, another rehabilitation strategy that is commonly underutilized, but which holds definite potential to provide further assistance in cognitive rehabilitation. This method is neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback).

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2006

Mind Games: Several Members of Italy's World Cup-winning team, including Andrea Pirlo did extensive neurofeedback in the runup to the tournament.

Peak Performance

Abstract

Long used to treat medical conditions such as attention deficit hyper activity disorder, epilepsy and dementia, it is begging to emerge as a tool for pro and amateur athletes alike -- with neurofeedback machines even starting to show up at some local public golf courses.

Condition

Title of Article

Year

2005

Neurofeedback with Anxiety and Affective Disorders (Anxiety)

Anxiety

Abstract

A review of the literature on the neurofeedback treatment of anxiety disorders was conducted by Moore [58]. He was able to identify eight studies of generalized anxiety disorder, three studies with phobic anxiety disorder, two studies of OCD, and one report of using neurofeedback with PTSD. He noted several problems with this literature. One problem was that most of the research studies only used brief neurofeedback training in comparison with what clinicians tend to do. For example, in the generalized anxiety disorder studies, treatment only averaged 3.2 hours, whereas clinicians often anticipate needing 7 to 12 hours of neurofeedback training with anxiety problems. The eight studies of generalized anxiety disorder also only averaged 6.25 subjects per study, but seven of the eight studies that he reviewed produced positive changes in clinical outcome. The best studies of neurofeedback with anxiety were three outcome studies [59] with phobic (test) anxiety. These studies included random assignment, four alternative treatment control groups, and a wait-list control group. In one study, the group that received alpha EEG enhancement training produced 33% more alpha after treatment, and all three feedback groups (who received alpha enhancement biofeedback, electromyography [EMG] [muscle] biofeedback, and alpha plus EMG biofeedback) demonstrated significant reductions in test anxiety. In comparison, the untreated control group and the relaxation training group experienced no significant reduction. In another study, subjects received phases of alpha enhancement training and EMG biofeedback training. The alpha training was found to increase alpha production from 64% to 78%, and anxiety scores dropped significantly (P b 0.001) for this combined treatment group compared with a nontreatment group. Moore [58] concluded in his review that a placebo effect was present in these neurofeedback studies but that alpha and theta enhancement training provided additional effects beyond placebo and are effective treatments for anxiety disorders. When these results are compared with the American Psychological Association Clinical Psychology Division criteria [60,61] and comparable biofeedback specialty criteria [62] for evaluating the status of efficacious treatments, neurofeedback for phobic anxiety qualifies for the status of a probably efficacious treatment.

© 2019 by Monterey Bay Neurofeedback Center

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