Anxiety in PTSD
The literature regarding neurofeedback treatment of anxiety associated with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is reviewed. The results of quantitative electroencephalograph (QEEG) guided neurofeedback training for anxiety in nineteen PTSD patients is analyzed, along with the change in anxiety in four control patients who did not do neurofeedback. Those who did neurofeedback training experienced clinically significant reductions in anxiety, whereas there was no significant change in anxiety in the control group. QEEG-guided neurofeedback appears to be effective in a higher percentage of patients than non– QEEG guided training in increasing alpha and theta, based on results in the published literature.
The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the quality of attachment in early infancy and the effects of child trauma, as well as to introduce some innovative therapeutic approaches. For this reason, a group of 10 children manifesting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), diagnosed by ICD-10, was selected. The mean age of the patients was 9 ± 3.05 years, from both sexes (girls 3, boys 7). Mothers and children were examined by a battery of psychometric instruments Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and State Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In addition to the classical psychotherapeutic methods (supportive, behaviour and play therapy), the multimodal computerised biofeedback technique was introduced for both assessment and therapy. The results for the children showed a high level of anxiety and stress, somatisation and behavioural problems (aggressivity, impulsivity, non-obedience, and nightmares), complemented by hypersensitive and depressive mothers and misattachment in the early period of infancy. Consequently, the explanation of the early predisposition to PTSD was related to be the non-developed Right Orbitofrontal Cortex-ROFC. The latter was related to insecure attachment confirmed in all the children examined. The therapeutic results obtained with biofeedback techniques are very encouraging.
Trauma NFBT and Psychotherapy
This paper describes a case study of a 14-year-old African refugee boy who survived multiple traumas related to war, displacement, and deprivation. Traumatized from the age of 2, his presentation was primarily one of affect dysregulation. In order to address both the core hyperarousal and the unavailability of the necessary cortical and behavioral skills required to regulate affect, an approach was chosen that integrates neurofeedback (electroencephalographic biofeedback) and psychotherapy. We trust that the description of the process provides others with new practice options and an enthusiasm to expand in this direction.